# Likert item question

The Likert item question type provides the participant with a Likert item to answer the question (Figure 1). This question type has the following options:

• Show answer required
• Lower bound label
• Upper bound label
• Show line between intervals

Figure 1. Example Likert item (no bounding labels)

## Likert item vs Likert scale

A Likert scale is the sum of responses on several Likert items. There is often confusion in the literature between Likert item and Likert scale. To clarify, a single question with a range of quantitative values from which to select an answer is a Likert item (Figure 1), whereas the sum (or scaling) of responses from a number of Likert items is a Likert scale.

## Well-designed Likert items

A well-designed Likert item must exhibit:

• Symmetry: the item contains an equal number of positive and negative values equally distributed around a neutral or zero value. In the above Likert item (Figure 1), the neutral value is `Neither agree nor disagree`. Omitting the neutral/zero value as an option is described as a forced choice method.
• Balance: the quantitative distance between items is equal. An equal distribution allows for interpolation and averaging for scales.

Note: In Psychstudio, a Likert item can be used for any quantitative rating scale even if it is not strictly well-designed symmetrically (such as a pain rating from 1 to 10) or is not well-designed as far as balance is concerned (such as a logarithmic scale of some form).

## Editing the question

Click in the top left corner of the question (Figure 2). From here you can edit the question text as well as the answer options and style. To save your changes, click in the top right corner of the question editor. To cancel your changes, click

Figure 2. Open question editor

## Adding a value to the Likert item

Answer options (Figure 3) consist of a code and an option (which is used as the label). To add an option, click set a code and an option and then click . Remember, to also click in the top right corner of the question editor to save your changes.

Figure 3. Answer options

## Removing a value from the Likert item

To remove an answer option, click on the corresponding option in the answer options table (Figure 3). Remember, to also click in the top right corner of the question editor to save your changes.

## Setting scale bounds

Setting lower and upper bounds labels is done by filling in the bounds table (Figure 4) and hitting on the bounds table. Remember to also click in the top right corner of the question editor to save your changes.

Figure 4. Bounds settings